Trees for Forest Garden

Name Family Description Flower/ seeds Height/ spread Soil/sun Pruning Notes
Beech
Fagus sylvatica
Fagaceae Decidious tree
Evergreen
Apr to May 30 m Very tolerant
Calcareous
Shade
  Attract wildlife
Edible seeds and leaves
Common myrtle
Myrtus communis
Myrtaceae Evergreen shrub Jul to Aug
Oct to Nov
4.5 m Frost tender
Well drained soil
Full sun
Very tolerant once established Mid to late spring Good hedge
Edible fruits and flower
European elder
Sambucus nigra
Caprofoliaceae Decidious tree Jun to Jul
Aug to Sept
6 m Very tolerant
moist loamy soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant (ground level) Herbal compost activator
Edible fruits and flowers
Spindle
Euonymus europaeus
Celastraceae Decidious shrub May to Jun
Sep to Nov
  Tolerant
Calcareous soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Tolerant Toxic
Autumn olive
Elaeagnus umbellata
Elaeagnaceae Decidious shrub May to Jun
Sep to Nov
4 m light sandy loam
Tolerate maritime exposure
Full sun
Tolerant Attracting wildlife
Fix nitrogen
Edible fruits and seeds
Good hedge
Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus x ebbingei
Elaeagnaceae Evergreen shrub Oct to Jan
Apr to May
5 m Very tolerant
(Maritime exposure)
Well drained soil
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
Tolerant Fix nitrogen
Good hedge
Whitebeam
Sorbus aria
Rosaceae Decidious tree May to jun
Sep to Oct
12 m Tolerant
(maritime exposure)
Semi-shadeFull sun
Tolerant
Suitable for coppicing
Attracting wildlife
Windbreak tree
Succeptible to fire
Ramanas rose
Rosa rugosa
Rosaceae Decidious shrub Jun to Aug
Aug to Oct
2 m Tolerant
(maritime exposure)
light well-drained soil
  Edible fruits
Comfrey
Symphytum officinale
Boraginaceae Perannial May to Jun
Jun to Jul
1.2 m Tolerant
Moist and deep rich soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
Tolerant Can be invasive
Use as an instant compost and tea (potassium)
Broom
Cytisus scoparius
Fabaceae Decidious shrub May to Jun
Aug to Nov
2.4 m Tolerant (maritime exposure)
Poor well-drained soil
Calcifuge
Semi-shadeFull sun
Very tolerant Fix nitrogen
Attract wildlife
Guelder rose
Viburnum opulus
Adoxaceae Decidious shrub Jun to July
Sep to Oct
5 m Tolerant
But ill adapted to poor soil and dry situations
Semi-shadeFull sun
Very tolerant Alternative host for the broad bean aphid
Good hedge
Broadleaved dock
Rumex obtusifolius
Polygonaceae Perennial Jun to Oct
Jul to Oct
1 m Good soil

Semi-shadeFull sun

  Indicate a compact soil
Attracting wildlife
Invasive
Field maple
Acer campestre
Aceraceae Decidious tree May to Jun
Sep to Oct
15 m Tolerant
Prefers a good well-drained soil and a PH above 6.
Pollution tolerant
Semi-shadeFull sun
Very tolerant :
Clipping
Attracting wild life
bad companion plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants
Gean/Wild cherry
Prunus avium
Rosaceae Decidious tree Apr to May
Jul to Aug
18 m Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
Tolerant Edible fruit
Attracting wildlife
Bad companion plant for potatoes, plums, wheat
Bog myrtle
Myrica gale
Myricaceae Decidious shrub Mars to May
Aug to Sep
2m pH between 3.5 and 6
Semi-shadeFull sun
Tolerant Attracting wildlife
Fix nitrogen
Repels moths and insects
Meadow sweet
Filipendula ulmaria
Rosaceae Perennial Jun to Aug
Aug to Sep
1.2 m Alkaline and neutral soil
Moist soil
Semi-shade Full sun
  Attracting wildlife
Strawberry tree
Arbutus unedo
Ericaceae Evergreen tree Oct to Dec
Nov to Dec
9 m Nutrient rich well drained soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
  Edible fruit
Tolerate maritime exposure
Good hedge
Yew
Taxus baccata
Taxaceae Evergreen conifer tree Mar to Apr
Sep to Nov
15 m Very tolerant
Lime stone
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant Good hedge
Tea of leaves: insecticide
Toxic
Hairy bitter cress
Cardamine hirsuta
Brassicaceae Annual April to Aug
May to Sep
0.3m Very tolerant
Moist soil
Full sunSemi-shade
  Edible all winter
Common garden weed
Griselinia
Griselinia littoralis
Cornaceae Evergreen shrub May 6 m Tolerant
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant Tolerate maritime exposure
Good hedge
Globe artichoke
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
compositae Perennial Aug to Sep
Sep to Oct
1.5 m Rich and moist soil
Full sun
  Attracting wildlife
Seems to be immute to the predation of rabbit
Creeping buttercup
Ranunculus repens
Ranunculaceae Perennial May to Aug 0.3 m moist loamy soil on the heavy side
Full sunSemi-shade
  Garden weed can be invasive
Juneberry/Snowy mespilus
Amelanchier canadensis
Rosaceae Decidious shrub Apr

Jul

6 m Tolerant
But doesn(t like water logged or dry soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Trimming after flowering Edible fruit
Good hedge
Bamboo
Phyllostachys bissetii
Poaceae Evergreen bamboo but can sometimes lose his leaves   1 m between 2 bamboo Vigorous
Doesn’t like too much lime
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant
Can be kept at 2-3 m
Can be invasive
Good hedge
Mallow
Malva sylvestris
Malvaceae Biennal/perennial Jul to Oct (sometimes more) 1.2m Very tolerant
Full sun
  Imune to the predationof rabbit
Gaultheria
Gaultheria shallon
Ericaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jun
Sep to Oct
1.2 m Prefers acid soils
Semi-shadeFull shade
Tolerant after the flowering Edible fruit
Can be invasive
Yarrow
Achillea millefolium
Asteraceae Perennial Jun to Aug
Jul to Oct
0.6 m Tolerant
Prefers a poor and lime soil
Full sun
  Attracting wildlife
Compost activator
Good companion plant
Tolerate maritime exposure
Can be invasive
Periwinkle
Vinca minor
Apocynaceae Evergreen shrub Mai to Sept 1 m Very tolerant
Prefers rich soil
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
Trimming it before it enters the active growing phase. Stems for basketry
Good ground cover
Bugle
Ajuga reptans
Lamiaceae Evergreen perennial Mai to Jul
Jul to Sep
0.6 m Prefers a humus-rich, moisture retentive soil
Semi-shadeFull shade
  Attracting wildlife
Good ground cover
Common vetch
Vicia sativa
Fabaceae Annual plant Mai to Jul   Very tolerant
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
  Green manure
Good forage
Tree lupin
Lupinus arboreus
Fabaceae Evergreen shrub May to Aug 1.2 m Requires a well-drained dry or moist soil
Full sun
  Maritime exposure
Good shelter (quick grown and fix nitrogen)
Morning glory bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis
Convolvulaceae Perennial
climber
Jun to Sep 2 m Dry moist soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Can’t get rid of it by cutting it Self-fertile
Invasive and harbours tobacco mosaic virus of the Solanaceae
Alpine strawberry
Fragaria vesca 'Semperflorens'
Rosaceae Perennial shrub May to Nov
Jun to Nov
0.3 m Prefers a fertile well-drained soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Tolerant Compost activator
Tends to lose vigorous after 2-3 years
Edible berries
Sorrel
Rumex acetosella
Polygonaceae Perennial May to Aug
Jul to Sep
1 m Tolerant
moist moderately fertile well-drained soil and acidic
Full sun
  Attracting wildlife
Dioecious
Elm
Ulmus glabra
Ulmaceae Deciduous tree Feb to March
May to Jun
30 m well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Requires minimum pruning Tolerate atmospheric pollution
Maritime exposure tolerant
Lavender
Lavandula angustifolia
Lamiaceae Evergreen shrub Jul to Sep
Aug to Oct
1.2 m Tolerant
Prefers well-drained soil and not to acid
Full sun
Very tolerant Attracting wild life
Tolerates maritime exposure
False box
Lonicera nitida
Caprifoliaceae Evergreen shrub   3 m Very tolerant
Well-drained soil and moist soil
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
Layering in Autumn Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth Good hedge
Ground cover plant
Chilean lantern
Crinodendron hookeranium
Elaeocarpaceae Evergreen shrub   4-8 m
2.5-4 m
Grows well in a moist but well-drained acidic soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Need little and no regular pruning  
Grape vine
Vitis vinifera
Vitaceae Deciduous climber Spring
Autumn
5 m Neutral or lime soil
Well-drained
Full sun
Very tolerant , less fruit but earlier and better Edible fruit
Kiwi
Actinidia deliciosa
Actinidiaceae Deciduous climber Jul to Aug
Oct to Dec
9 m Prefers moist soil Prefers a sound loamy acid soil,
Dislike alkaline soil
Full sunSemi-shade
any pruning is best carried out in the winter Dioceous
Edible fruit
one male to five or six females is normally adequate.
Chilean guava
Ugni molinae
Myrtaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jul
Aug to Oct
2 m Tolerant
Prefers a moderately fertile well-drained loam
Full sun
Layering Self-fertile
Edible fruits
Apple
Malus domestica
Rosaceae Decidious tree Apr to Jun 9 m Tolerant
moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil
PH 6.5-6.8
Full sunSemi-shade
best time to prune apple trees is in late winter or very early spring Attracting wild life
Edible fruits
Devil’s bit scabious
Succia pratensis
Dispacaceae Perennial Jul to Oct
Aug to Oct
0.4m Prefers damp conditions
Full sunSemi-shade
  Attract wildlife
Crimson clover
Trifolium incarnatum
Fabaceae Annual May to Sep
Jul to Oct
0.5m well-drained circum-neutral
Full sun
  Fix nitrogen
Green manure
Self-fertile
Dog rose
Rosa canina
Rosaceae Deciduous shrub Jun to Jul
Oct to Dec
3 m Tolerant
Prefers a circumneutral soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Tolerates trimming Self-fertile
Attract wildlife
Good hedge
Blackthorn
Prunus spinosa
Rosaceae Deciduous shrub Mar to Apr
Oct
3 m Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil   Attract wildlife
Resistant to maritime exposure
Good hedge
Pheasant berry
Leycestria formasa
Caprifoliaceae Deciduous shrub Oct Dec 2.5 m
1.5-2.5 m
Very tolerant
Well-drained soil
Full sunSemi-shade
need annual pruning to encourage strong, healthy shoots and improve flowering  
Ivy
Hedera helix
Araliaceae Evergreen climber Oct
Nov
May to Jun
15 m Very tolerant
Dislikes waterlogged and very acidic soils
Full sunSemi-shade Full shade
  Attracting wildlife
Holly
Ilex aquifolium
Aquifoliaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jun
Nov to Mar
9 m Tolerant
Dislikes watterlogged
PH 3.5-7.2
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
Tolerate hard clipping Attracting wildlife
Good hedge
Toleratesmaritime exposure
Leylan cypress
Cupressus x leylandii
Cupressaceae Evergreen tree   40 m Tolerant
it prefers a moist fertile soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Pruning is recommended to preserve or improve tree structure, vigor and life-span Attracting wildlife
Good windbreak hedge
Fact growing tree
Tolerates maritime exposure
Fuchsia
Fuchsia magellanica
Onagraceae Deciduous shrub Jul to Oct 3.6 m Succeeds in any fertile well-drained circum-neutral soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
tolerant of trimming Attracting wildlife
Tolerate maritime exposure
Good hedge
Cuttings
Laurel
Prunus laurocerasus
Lauraceae Evergreen shrub Apr to Jun
Sep
10 m Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil
Semi-shadeFull sunFull shade
Very tolerant of trimming Attracting wildlife
Excellent hedge
Cuttings and layering
Rhododendron
Rhododendron ponticum
Ericaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jun 5 m Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey
PH 4.5-5.5
Semi-shade
Tolerate hardy clipping Can be invasive
Privet
Ligustrum vulgare
Oleaceae Evergreen shrub Jun to Jul
Sep to Oct
3 m Very tolerant
Prefers a calcareous soil and succeeds in thin dry soil
Full sunSemi-shade
  Attract wildlife
Tolerate maritime exposure and atmospheric pollution
Basketry
Cuttings
Potentilla
Potentilla arenaria
Rosaceae            
Rubus tricolor
Rubus tricolor
Rosaceae Evergreen shrub Jul
Aug to Sep
2 m Tolerant
Prefers awell drained loamy soil
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
Very tolerant Good ground cover plant
Tip layering in July
Holly-leaved olearia
Olearia macradonta
Asteraceae Evergreen shrub Jul

Aug

6 m well-drained moderately fertile soil but prefers a light loam or peaty soil
Full sun
Tolerant to several pruning Tolerates maritime exposure
Good hedge
Daisy bush
Olearia traversii
Asteraceae Evergreen shrub Jun 10 m well-drained moderately fertile soil but prefers a light loam or peaty soil
Full sun
Very tolerant Tolerates maritime exposure
Good hedge
Fishbone cotonesater
Cotoneaster horizontalis
Rosaceae deciduous shrub Jul to Aug
Oct –Nov
1 m Well drained soil
Full sun
They require little or no pruning and in fact may be spoilt by harder pruning. Ground cover
Hedge
Bearberry cotoneaster
Cotoneaster dammeri
Rosaceae Evergreen shrub   40-60 cm Prefers dry and calcareous soil
Full sunSemi-shade
They require little or no pruning and in fact may be spoilt by harder pruning. Attracting wildlife
Good hedge
Cuttings
Figwort
Scrophularia nodosa
Scrophulariaceae perennial Jun to Sep
Jul to Sep
1 m Moist soil
Full sunSemi-shade
   
St John wort
Hypericum perforatum
Hypericaceae Perennial Jul   Very tolerant
Full sunSemi-shade
Pruning at the beginning of spring  
Tustan
Hypericum androsaemum
Hypericaceae Deciduous shrub May to Aug 70 cm medium moisture, well-drained soils
Rich, loamy, acidic soils are preferred
Full sunSemi-shade
  Low hedge
Buddleja
Buddleja davidii
Buddlejaceae Deciduous shrub Jul to Sep 3-5 m Very tolerant
Full sun
Early spring Cuttings in autumn
Laurel
Laurus nobilis
Lauraceae Evergreen tree Apr to May 7 m Succeeds in any soil of moderate fertility
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant but slow to recover Dioecious
Good compagnon plant against pest and diseases
Red valerian
Centranthus ruber
Valerianaceae Perennial Jun to Sep
Jul to Oct
0.9 m Grows well in ordinary moist, well-drained garden soil and on dry walls
Full sun
  Attracting wildlife
Tolerant to maritime exposure
Firethorn
Pyracantha angustifolia
Rosaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jul
Oct to Nov
3 m Prefers a good well-drained, moisture retentive loamy soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Do your pruning right after the flowers have finished blooming since the following year's buds will start forming later in the year Good hedge
Attract wildlife
Tolerate pollution
New zeland flax
Phormium tenax
Agavaceae Evergreen perennial Jun to Jul 3 m Prefers a rich loamy soil[1] but is not too fussy, succeeding in peaty soils and in boggy moorland
Full sunSemi-shade
  Tolerates maritime exposure
Basketry
String
Daisy bush
Brachyglottis greyi
Asteraceae Evergreen shrub Jul to Oct
Sep to Oct
2 m Succeeds in most well-drained soils
Full sun
  Tolerate maritime exposure
Good hedge
Cuttings
Genista hispanica
Genista hispanica
Fabaceae Deciduous shrub Apr to Jun 1.5 m Easily grown in a light well-drained soil Prefers a rather dry stony or sandy soil and does better in one on the poor side
Full sun
Very tolerant Fix nitrogen
Portugal laurel
Prunus lusitanica
Rosaceae Evergreen shrub Jun 6 m prefers a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant Any trimming is best done with secateurs in August Good hedge
Berberis Darwinii
Berberis darwinii
Berbericaceae Evergreen shrub Apr to May
Jul to Aug
3 m Prefers a warm moist loamy soil
Acids soils
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant Self-fertile
Attract wildlife
Tolerate maritime exposure
Hypericum
Hypericum “Hidcote”
Hypericaceae Evergreen shrub Jun to Oct 1.7 m Very tolerant
Well-drained soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Beginning of spring  
Escallonia
Escallonia 'Langleyensis'
Escalloniaceae Evergreen shrub Jul to Oct 4.5 m Well-drained
Full sun
  Attract wildlife
Ice plant
Sedum spectabile
Crassulaceae Perennial Sep to Oct
Oct to Nov
0.4 Tolerant
prefers a fertile well-drained soil
Full sun
Cut back after flowering to maintain shape or leave seedheads overwinter Self-fertile
Attract wildlife
Immune to predation of rabbits
Virbunum
Virbunum tinus
Adoxaceae Evergreen shrub Winter 2 m Grows well in most moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soils
Full sunSemi-shadeFull shade
They require little or no pruning and in fact may be spoilt by harder pruning.  
Oregano grape
Mahonia aquifolium
Berberidaceae Ervergreen shrub Jan to May
Aug to Sep
2 m Very tolerant
Full sunFull shadeSemi-shade
Doesn’t need any trimming
But very tolerant to pruning
Self-fertile
Edible fruit

Good hedge
Leaf cuttings in autumn

Hydrangea
Hydrangea macrophylla
Hydrangeaceae Deciduous shrub Jul to Sep 3 m Tolerant
but resenting dryness at the roots
Full sunSemi-shade
Very tolerant Tolerate maritime exposure
Leaves can be a substitute to sugar
Good hedge
The colour of the flowers reflects the pH of the soil the plant is growing in, the flowers are pink in a neutral to alkaline soil and blue in an acid soil
Hebe elliptica Plantiginaceae Evergreen shrub Summer to early autumn 1 m Moist and well- drained soil
Full sunSemi-shade
Pruning may be carried out during the growing season. Tolerate maritime exposure
Pampas grass
Cortaderia selloana
Poaceae Evergreen perennial Aug to Oct
Oct to Nov
3 m Tolerant preferring a damp well-drained sandy or loamy soil
Full sun
It should also be pruned each year to the ground. This is usually performed in late winter or early spring Dioecious
Tolerates strong winds and maritime exposure
Lophomyrtus x ralphii Myrtaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jun 5 m Succeeds in any soil of reasonably good quality
Full sun
Tolerant of pruning in spring Edible fruit
Cuttings in autumn
Dogwood
Cornus alba
Cornaceae Deciduous shrub Jun to Jul
Aug to Oct
3 m Very tolerant
Semi-shadeFull sun
For the best colored stems, the plant should be cut back hard in the spring to about 5cm from the ground Cuttings
California lilac
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus
Rhamnaceae Evergreen shrub May to Jun
Aug to Oct
4.5 m Tolerates some lime, but will not succeed on shallow chalk
Semi-shadeFull sun
Dislikes heavy pruning, it is best not to cut out any wood thicker than a pencil; after flowering Fix Nitrogen
Soap
Tolerates maritime exposure Good hedge
Winter Creeper
Euonymus fortunei
Celestraceae Evergreen shrub July 4.5 m Very tolerant
Prefers a well-drained loamy soil
Semi-shadeFull sunFull shade
Tolerant of clipping Cuttings in spring
Alexanders
Smyrnium olusatrum
Apiaceae Biennial May to Jun
Jun to Aug
1.2 m Tolerant
Prefers a well-drained moisture retentive soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
  Attracts wildlife
Scot pine
Pinus sylvestris
Pinaceae Evergreen tree conifer Mai
Jun (2 years to ripen)
25 m Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam
Acid soil
Semi-shadeFull sun
Tolerant Attract wildlife
Roots candle substitute
Wind and maritime exposure tolerant
Atmospheric pollution tolerant
Lodgepole pine
Pinus contorta
Pinaceae Evergreen tree conifer May
Jan to Feb
15 m It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought
Full sun
Tolerant Tolerate maritime exposure
Sitka spruce
Picea sitchensis
Pinaceae Evergreen tree conifer May
Sep to Oct
50 m Likes abundant moisture at the roots
PH 4-6
Full sun
Tolerant Tolerate maritime exposure
Roots for basketry
Good timber for construction and fire
Cuttings early summer
Douglas fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii

Pinaceae

Evergreen tree conifer Mach to May
Sep to Oct
75 m Prefers a moist but not water-logged alluvial soil
Full sun
Tolerant Good fire and building timber
Legend: Full sun Full sun | Semi-shade Semi-shade | Full shade Full shade

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